The value of the constant is approximately 1.366 kilowatts per square metre. Insolation is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle, and cross-cycle changes. It is measured on a surface perpendicular to the rays, one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (roughly the distance from the Sun to the Earth). The solar constant (as defined for the planet Earth) is the power collected at the top of the atmosphere by a unit area perpendicular to the light path. The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal to approximately 1,368 W/m 2 (watts per square meter) at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (that is, on or near Earth). For this purpose solar observatories had been established in Chile and Arizona. The solar constant (G SC) is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area. Solar constant, the total radiation energy received from the Sun per unit of time per unit of area on a theoretical surface perpendicular to the Sun’s rays and at Earth’s mean distance from the Sun. Sunlight is the light and energy that comes from the Sun.When this energy reaches the earth's surface, it is called insolation.What we experience as sunlight is actually solar radiation.It is the radiation and heat from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic waves.. Măsurătorile directe instrumentale ale oțelului solar constant au fost făcute odată cu dezvoltarea astronomiei extra-atmosferice, adică de la mijlocul anilor 1960, cu observații anterioare de la suprafața Pământului, a trebuit să corectăm absorbția radiației solare de către atmosferă. Before 2012 the story changed and Wikipedia promotes the “solar constant” concept. The “Solar Constant” In 1981 Richard Willson wrote about “the variability of solar total irradiance”. The atmosphere affects the amount of solar radiation received. Solar constant The solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant is a measure of flux density, is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays, at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) (roughly the mean distance from the Sun to Earth). The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. To check and confirm the small variations in the solar constant found at these two sites, Abbot received a grant from the National Geographic Society in March 1925 to select a site for a third solar observatory, equip it, and carry out observations for a few years. Obviously, this decision is not supported by the TSI dataset. According to Wikipedia: The solar constant, a measure of flux, is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays, at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) (roughly the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth). The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one Astronomical Unit (AU). Evidently, somewhere a long the line, “settled science” decided the Sun is constant. Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere, on a linear scale and plotted against wavenumber.. The solar mass (M ☉) is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately 2 × 10 30 kg.It is often used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as stellar clusters, nebulae, galaxies and black holes.It is approximately equal to the mass of the Sun.This equates to about two nonillion (short scale) or two quintillion () kilograms: In practice, the unit area is 1 m squared (m 2).Its value is about 1.98 calories per minute incident on each square centimeter (approximately 127.7 calories incident per minute on each square inch) of the upper atmosphere. Irradiance on Earth is most intense at points directly facing (normal to) the Sun. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just the visible light. It is most accurately measured from satellites where atmospheric effects are absent.