Prayer To St. Joseph After Mass - Oratio ad Sanctum Ioseph [K] [L] The Lord's Prayer - Oratio Dominica [M] Magnificat. These leaders don’t understand that when we resist Satan, we become stronger and he and his demons grow weaker. Amen. Add to cart. 3. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial choir of Dominions, may the Lord give us grace to govern our senses and subdue our unruly passions. Saint Michael, most perfect adorer of the Divine Word. Fast forward through the terrible 20 th Century to the Solemnity of Sts. versus another translation which is a far more direct translation: which translates to: Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, congregational singing has currently been suspended. I agree, I go to Latin Mass and these prayers are often said, at first it was difficult to learn them, but now it comes easy and since I speak spanish some words are not to foreign to me. Saint Michael, receiver of the souls of the elect after death. SaintMichaelSmitesSatan, Deliverance Prayers To God,The Father, Jesus Christ The Lord, The Holy Spirit, St. Saint Michael, whom God crowned with honor and glory. Per intercessiónem Sancti Michaélis et cappéllae caeléstis Potestatum, Dominus ánimas nostras defendat contra tentationes et insídias diáboli. O God, who in a marvelous order hast established the ministries of angels and of men, mercifully grant that as Thy holy Angels ever do Thee service in heaven, so at all times they may succor us here upon earth. Sancte Michael, divini Verbi adorator perfectissime. But, according to St. Thomas (Summa Ia.113.3) he is the prince of the last and lowest choir, the angels. Short Prayer to St. Michael the Archangel The well-known short version of this prayer follows in English and Latin. V. Ora pro nobis, O Gloriose Sancte Michael, Princeps Ecclesiae Jesu Christi. At Daniel 12:1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the "time of the end". That we may be made worthy of His promises. You don’t need to know Latin to pray in Latin. The St Michael the Archangel prayer is a powerful prayer that every Catholic should know by heart. Here Are 3 Powerful Prayers for Purity, A Wife’s Prayer – Daily Prayer for Your Husband, Marriage & Family, Dedication of a Child to Our Lady of Guadalupe, Litany in Reparation to Our Lord in the Eucharist. No one comes to the Father except through me. Ámen. Amen. These do not affect the purposes of prayers. Impetra mihi peccatorum meorum veniam, humilitatem, patientiam et alias virtutes, maxime vero perseverantiam in bono et gratiam finalem, ut tecum Deum meum glorificem in saecula. Where the See of the most blessed Peter and the Chair of Truth has been constituted as a light to the nations, there they have placed a throne of their abomination and impiety; so that with the Pastor struck, they may prevail to disperse the flock. Deus, et Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, invocamus nomen sanctum tuum, et clementiam tuam supplices exposcimus ut, per intercessionem immaculatae semper Virginis Dei Genitricis Mariae, beati Michaëlis Archangeli, beati Joseph ejusdem beatae Virginis Sponsi, beatorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et omnium Sanctorum, adversus satanam, omnesque alios immundos spiritus, qui ad nocendum humano generi animasque perdendas pervagantur in mundo, nobis auxilium praestare digneris. This is why it’s also important to learn to pray the St Michael prayer in Latin. There're currently 2 major methods of pronouncing Latin in use, they're the Classical Pronunciation and the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation( or Roman/Italian pronunciation). Be with me now and always, especially at the end of my life. Ímperet ílli Déus, súpplices deprecámur: tuque, prínceps milítiæ cæléstis, Sátanam aliósque spíritus malígnos, qui ad perditiónem animárum pervagántur in múndo, divína virtúte, in inférnum detrúde. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray; and do thou, O prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, thrust into hell satan and all the evil spirits who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls. LATIN TITLE: ENGLISH TITLE: Oratio ad Sanctum Michael: Prayer to St. Michael: LATIN TEXT Versiculus: Sancte Michael Archangele, . 1. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray, and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly hosts, by the power of God, thrust into hell Satan, and all the evil spirits, who prowl … Per intercessiónem Sancti Michaélis et cappéllae caeléstis Dominationum, Dóminus nobis gratiam det gubernare sensus et dominare carnem petulantíssimam. Amen. Sancte Michael Archangele, defende nos in praelio. Obtain for me pardon of my sins, humility, patience and the other virtues, true perseverance in goodness, and the final grace that I may give glory to God with thee forever. Whenever possible, we also link to Catholic-owned stores, for your convenience. Prayer to St. Michael the Archangel. He told Antonia to honor him by nine salutations to the nine Choirs of Angels. 6. The prayer posted is actually not the best translation and confuses the translation significantly. Sancte Michael, splendor et fortitudo militantis Ecclesiae. Amen.Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. R. Ut digni efficiamur promissiónibus Eius. Nearly all the materials available use Classical Pronunciation. We provide these prayers in English as well as Latin, since Latin is the official language of the Western Church and many people learned them originally in Latin. And that great dragon was cast forth, the ancient serpent, who is called the devil and satan, who seduces the whole world; and he was cast forth upon Earth, and his angels were sent with him. A given phoneme may be represented by different letters in different periods. O glorious Archangel St. Michael, Prince of the heavenly host, defend us in battle, and in the struggle which is ours against the principalities and Powers, against the rulers of this world of darkness, against spirits of evil in high places ( Eph 6:12 ). You probably learned these essential prayers in Catholic school, that are a part of regular devotion. Per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum. Imperet illi Deus, supplices deprecamur: tuque, Princeps militiae caelestis, in virtute Dei, in infernum detrude satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in mundo. Phonetic pronunciation compliments of Richard de Lorimier. When spoken by a layman who does not know what it means or its part in liturgy, its use is but of empty words against the blazers of hell. Sed projectus est draco ille magnus, serpens antiquus, qui vocatur diabolus et satanas, qui seducit universum orbem; et projectus est in terram, et angeli ejus cum illo missi sunt. Pray for us, O glorious St. Michael, Prince of the Church of Jesus Christ. V. Deus, in adiutórium meum inténde. I’m trying to learn Latin, so far no luck. 4. External. Help my soul which I now commend to thee against this same enemy. Amen. P. Bonaventura, op. You can be sure the devil will flee if you beg St Michael for his intercession. Prayer of St John Vianney; Prayer: Jesus, My Saviour, Help Me (By St. Alphonsus Liguori) Prayer to St. Padre Pio for Healing of Cancer; Prayer for Fathers to Saint Joseph (by Venerable Pope John XXIII) Prayer to St. Anthony (for elderly) The Pope ordered this prayer to be recited daily after Low Mass in all the churches throughout the Catholic world. Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Amen. The Pieta Pocket Prayer Booklet (Including the 15 Prayers Revealed to St Bridget of Sweden, and Over 50 Other Prayers for All Occasions), Act of Consecration to St Michael the Archangel, Prayer of St Augustine (Communion Prayer), Racism Among Traditional Catholics on Facebook – Say It Isn’t So – Part I. Latin Pronunciation. How to say Archangel Michael in English? Sancte Michael, dux et consolator populi Dei. Saint Michael, strength of those who fight under the standard of the Cross. Princeps gloriosissime, Sancte Michael Archangele, ego humillimus cliens tuus saluto te per dulcissimum Cor Iesu Christi, quod in augmentum gaudii et gloriae tuae peramanter offero, gratias agens Deo pro beatitudine, quam tibi contulit, et quod te super omnes alios Angelos honorare et exaltare voluit. Polish This is a table of the consonant sounds of Classical Latin. Amen…. Hey there Rivka! Phonetic pronunciation compliments of Richard de Lorimier. Satan prowls about the world seeking the ruin of souls. There is something powerful about praying this prayer in a “dead” language that cannot change – a beautiful, ancient language. LISTEN TO THE PRAYER IN LATIN 9. Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. This 16-count variety pack, which is ideal for sharing with family and friends, includes two prayer cards for each of the following prayers: Sign of the Cross & Glory Be; Our Father; Hail Mary; Prayer to St. Michael Saint Michael, most powerful Prince of the heavenly host. A rough guide to the Latin pronunciation of basic prayers Sign of the Cross: in no-mee-nay pah-tris et fee-lee-ee et spir-ee-toos sonk-tee Ah-men. Glory Be: Glor-ee-ah pah-tree et fee-lee-oh et spir-ee-too-ee sonk-toh see-coot air-ahtin prin-chip-ee-oh et noonk et sem-per et in say-coo-lah say-coo-lo … Amen. Hi Nicholas, I agree with your point that we should know the language. Imperet illi Deus, supplices deprecamur: tuque, Princeps militiae caelestis, Satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in … Be favorable to Thy Church, the Bride of the Lamb without spot, whose enemies have filled to overflowing with gall and inebriated with wormwood. Mother Mary, St. Micheal and other Saints, Akathist To Our Sweetest Lord Jesus Christ, Akathist to Our Lord Jesus Christ, Christ Has Risen, Christ is Risen, The Jesus Prayer, Jesus Prayer, The Jesus Prayer in Latin En antiquus inimicus et homicida vehementer erectus est. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial choir of Archangels, may the Lord give us perseverance in faith and in good works, in order that we gain the glory of Paradise. Unless they have the reading in both English and Latin. Basil (Hom. There are enemies outside and within, who would like nothing more than to destroy the Church and to wipe all traces of Christianity from the planet. 1505–9) depicts St. Michael … Pray for St Michael’s intercession. (More to be added periodically.) Pray the prayer anytime you feel you are in danger or if you feel particularly oppressed by evil influence. This can give prayers made in Latin a weaponised efficacy; as the saying goes, the devil hates Latin. I’m most likely the only one. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. 5. The Hail Mary (Latin: Ave Maria) is a traditional Scripture-based Christian prayer of praise for and petition to the Blessed Virgin Mary.Since the sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic version of the prayer closes with an appeal for her intercession.. Amen. The Roman Liturgy seems to follow the GreekFathers; it calls him “Princeps militiae coelestis quem honorificant angelorum cives”. Sancte Michael, caelestis exercitus princeps potentissime. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. In the Saint Michael prayer he throws down the gauntlet to “the father of lies” as Jesus calls the devil in John’s Gospel (8:44), by enlisting the help of a very special Archangel: Saint Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial choir of Cherubim, may the Lord vouchsafe to grant us grace to leave the ways of wickedness and run in the paths of Christian perfection. Does anyone have a feel for which translation is more accurate. Amen. Amen. Amen…. Michael is mentioned three times in the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), all in the Book of Daniel.The prophet Daniel has a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. Original Prayer to St Michael the Archangel Do not permit me to stray from the holy faith, nor fall into the snare of desperation, nor to take for granted good works, which I am engaged in through the grace of God. That includes the St Michael Prayer in this article. Inspiring Performance of the Prayer to Saint Michael. Amen, By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial choir of Principalities, may God fill our souls with a true spirit of obedience. Artwork by Claudio Coello (1642–1693) depicts St. Michael defeating Satan. (An indulgence of two-hundred days is granted to everyone who devoutly says this prayer once a day, praying for the needs of the holy Church and the Supreme Pontiff.) St Michael Archangel Prayer St Michael Prayer Archangel Prayers Saint Michael Catholic Quotes Catholic Prayers Catholic Theology Faith Prayer My Prayer. Ecclesiam, Agni immaculati sponsam, faverrrimi hostes repleverunt amaritudinibus, inebriarunt absinthio; ad omnia desiderabilia ejus impias miserunt manus. Saint Michael, light and hope of souls near death. O God, come to my assistanceR. Pray the St Michael prayer, when your kids are being rebellious, and have abandoned God. 7. Amen.…. 2. Listings of ‘non una cum’ Masses can be found here (or here in pdf).. Per intercessiónem Sancti Michaélis et cappéllae caeléstis Virtutum, Dóminus nos servet a malo et non permittat cádere in tentationem. I don’t know anyone who consistently prays a prayer in Latin that they are not already familiar with in their vernacular. Sancte Michael, praesidium orthodoxi populi. LATIN TITLE: ENGLISH TITLE: Oratio ad Sanctum Michael: Prayer to St. Michael: LATIN TEXT Versiculus: Sancte Michael Archangele, . In the Catholic Latin Church, the prayer forms the basis of the Rosary and the Angelus prayers. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world. St Michael, through the power of God, is singularly qualified to take care of the devil and his demons. O most glorious Prince, Saint Michael the Archangel, I, thy most humble servant, salute thee through the most beloved Heart of Jesus Christ which I lovingly offer for the increase of thy joy and thy glory. Be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. Saint Michael, abundant font of divine wisdom. To the author of this article: One should not encourage prayer in a language not known to that person, especially if the prayers are foreign and one has no indication of what the text says. The history of this chaplet goes back to a devout Servant of God, Antonia d’Astonac, who had a vision of St. Michael. I have started saying the short form with my children when we say our prayers at night. In Catholic writings and traditions he acts as the defender of the Church and chief opponent of Satan, and assists people at the hour of death. For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. Sancte Michael (St. Michael) Latin prayer cards featuring complete English phonetic renderings of the Latin words per the more romano (as in Rome) liturgical pronunciation as endorsed by Popes St. Pius X, Benedict XV, and Pius XI. I give thanks to God for the blessedness which He brings to thee and with which He wishes to honor and exalt thee above all the other Angels. St Michael the Archangel Latin Prayer quantity. Virus nequitiae suae, tamquam flumen immundissimum, draco maleficus transfundit in homines depravatos mente et corruptos corde; spiritum mendacii, impietatis et blasphemiae; halitumque mortiferum luxuriae, vitiorum omnium et iniquitatum. Sancte Michael, sub signo Crucis militantium fortitudo. Prayer To St. Michael The ArchAngel - Sancte Michael Archangele [N] Saint Michael, consoler of souls languishing in purgatory. A cursory Google search will produce Latin prayers with their English translations side by side. Offer nostras preces in conspectu Altissimi, ut cito anticipent nos misericordiae Domini, et apprehendas draconem, serpentem antiquum, qui est diabolus et satanas, ac ligatum mittas in abyssum, ut non seducat amplius gentes. Click here for worldwide listings of the Tridentine Mass (Mass of St. Pius V).. We use it at the dinner table. Prayer cards with classic Catholic art on front, and prayers in Latin and English on back. (More to be added periodically.) Amen…. Pray the Plague Prayer; A Guide to the Pronunciation of Latin. May God rebuke him from punishment, and pray, and do, and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly host, the spirit of Satan and the other evil spirits who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls, the power of God, thrust into hell. Sancte Michael, consolator animarum in purgatorio languentium. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. St Michael the Archangel prayer Latin. Per intercessiónem Sancti Michaélis et cappéllae caeléstis Angelorum, Dóminus ab eis protegemur in hac vita mortale det et post hac perducemini ad gloriam aeternam. In addition, for those who would recite the Chaplet daily, he promised his continual assistance and the assistance of all holy angels during one’s life. Amen. We suggest that it be read it out loud for full appreciation. Changing himself into an angel of light, he goes about with the whole multitude of the wicked spirits to invade the earth and blot out the Name of God and of His Christ, to plunder, to slay, and to consign to eternal damnation the souls that have been destined for a crown of everlasting life. …. Sancte Michael Archangele, defende nos in proelio; contra nequitiam et insidias diaboli esto praesidium. Amen. Amen. Following these Scriptural passages, Christian tradition gives to St. Michael four offices: To Remember - Memorare. Amen. Join the conversation via an occasional email, Struggling with Chastity? Click here for worldwide listings of the Tridentine Mass (Mass of St. Pius V).. Come thou to the assistance of men, whom Almighty God created immortal, making them in His own image and likeness and redeeming them at a great price from the tyranny of Satan. In the New Testament, St. Michael is again contending with Satan in the Letter of Jude, where it says, "But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, disputed about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a reviling judgment upon him, but said, "The Lord rebuke you" (Jude 9). cit.) You might be praying words that do not match your intentions at all. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray; and do thou, O prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, thrust into hell satan and all the evil spirits who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls. Amen. I say translations because the original, I believe, would have been written in Portuguese. O most glorious Prince, Michael the Archangel, be mindful of us, here and everywhere: pray always unto the Son of God for us, Alleluia, Alleluia. By continuing to use this website, you consent to the use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy. They have laid profane hands upon Her most sacred treasures. As powerful an angel as St Michael is he is also, tender and ready to fight Satan and his minions on behalf of God’s people. Thank you HERE IS THE ACTUAL TRANSLATION OF THE PRAYER ABOVE – ITS A GOOD IDEA TO KNOW WHAT YOU ARE PRAYING: Saint Michael Archangel, defend us in battle against evil and snares of the devil. Tuque princeps militiae caelestis, Satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in mundo divina virtute in infernum detrude. Latin-English Prayer Card Variety Pack. Thou art venerated by Holy Church as Her guard and patron; Thou art glorified as our defender against the impious powers of earth and of hell. It is said that “the Devil hates Latin”. "Saint Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle; be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. Hinc tuo confisi praesidio ac tutela, sacri ministerii, Henceforth having been confided to thy escort and protection, we sacred ministers, [If recited by at least a deacon add the following:]. Saint Michael, guide and consoler of the People of God. Impetra mihi augmentum fidei, spei et caritatis, nec permittas me a sancta fide deviare nec in foveam desperationis incidere, neque de operibus bonis, si quae per gratiam Dei operatus sum, praesumere. In the same way, worldly powers of today are proud enough to actually believe they can destroy the Church, and the Kingdom of God. We use cookies to optimize your website experience. Prayer to the Mother of Fair Love 8th May 2019; Prayer to St. John Capistrano 23rd October 2017; Prayer to St. Luke 18th October 2017; Prayer to St. Ignatius of Antioch 17th October 2017; Recent Comments. Welcome to the New Saint Thomas Institute, providing online Catholic courses to over 50 nations. Latin phonology continually evolved over the centuries, making it difficult for speakers in one era to know how Latin was spoken before then. Product Details: 2.75″ x 4.25″ cover paper stock Prayer text in Latin and English Contains the following prayer and associated Latin text: Prayer to St. Michael Saint Michael […] Amen. Latin Prayers‎ > ‎Prayers to Saint Michael‎ > ‎ St Michael Prayer (Short Version) This is the version still said after low masses (extraordinary form) and in some Novus Ordo parishes after daily mass as well as for private devotions such as after the rosary. Princeps gloriosissime, Michael Archangele, esto memor nostri: hic et ubique semper precare pro nobis Filium Dei, alleluia, alleluia. Ubi sedes beatissimi Petri et Cathedra veritatis ad lucem gentium constituta est, ibi thronum posuerunt abominationis et impietatis suae; ut percusso Pastore, et gregem disperdere valeant. the ancient enemy of mankind and a murderer from the beginning has been fiercely aroused. © 2020 Beauty So Ancient LLC - All Rights Reserved. Prayer to St. Michael, Pope Leo XIII, Pope Leo, Catholic prayers, Latin prayers, St. Michael, prayer, Latin, long Veni in auxilium hominum, quos Deus creavit inexterminabiles, et ad imaginem similitudinis suae fecit, et a tyrannide diaboli emit pretio magno. When you buy a product through one of our links, we may receive a commission at no extra cost to you. Obtain for me an increase in faith, hope, and charity. St Michael the Archangel Prayer In Latin Sancte Michael Archangele, defende nos in proelio, contra nequitiam et insidias diaboli esto praesidium. Westminster Latin, the medieval French method, or restored classical pronunciation … I ask because I am teaching Latin to my son (or sons, if ever we have more) as a second language. Amen. As Catholics, we have resource to the Saints who will intercede for us if we but ask. By the intercession of St. Michael and the Celestial choir of Thrones, may the Lord infuse into our hearts a true and sincere spirit of humility. O princeps caelestis militiae, sancte Michael, qui superbum Luciferum cum omnibus suis asseclis in tartarum deiecisti, o defensor et protector Ecclesiae, o animarum ex hoc saeculo migrantium praeses: succurre populo Dei, defende Ecclesiam tibi commendatam contra omnes insidias satanae; adiuva animam meam contra eundem hostem constitutam, quam tibi nunc commendo. Amen. I would like to know where I can find St. Michael's Prayer written in Latin. Amen.. is 100% user-supported. O Princeps gloriose sancte Míchael, dux et praeposite caelestium exercituum, custos animarum, dómitor spírituum rebellum, serve in domu Regis Divini, et conductor mirabilis noster, qui cum excelléntia et virtute caelesti fulges, liberare nos a malo digeneris, qui ad te tornamus cum confidéntiae, et propítio praesídio tuo da nobis Deum magis fidéliter quotídie servire. Latin Fatima Prayer Online Study. DEUS, qui miro ordine, Angelorum ministeria hominumque dispensas: concede propitius ut, a quibus tibi ministrantibus in caelo assistitur, ab his in terra vita nostra muniatur. There are several brilliant books that with minimal time (six months) and effort (thirty minutes a day), one is able to read and understand most Ecclesiastical Latin. Sep 8, 2014 - Grace Before Meals in Latin. Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. Saint Michael, defend us in our daily battles so that we may not perish in the Last Judgment. Tibi vitae et mortis meae curam specialiter commendo, adsis mihi nunc et semper, maxime in fine vitae meae, benigne me tunc consolare, conforta et protege. O Lord, make haste to help me. It was originally performed in 2009 and then again in September 2019 without much difference in result. The common factor of the Mass, the St. Michael Prayer, and the exorcism ritual was Latin, the official language of the Church’s prayer. Signum Crucis [Sign of the Cross]. Hoc oremus méritis Jesu Christi, Domini nostri. Reciting the prayer to St. Michael after Mass is rapidly growing in popularity. It was originally published in the Roman Raccolta of July 23, 1898, and a supplement approved July 31, 1902. Unto thee the Lord hath handed over the souls of the redeemed to be placed in happiness above. Praeliare hodie cum beatorum Angelorum exercitu praelia Domini, sicut pugnasti contra ducem superbiae luciferum, et angelos ejus apostaticos: et non valuerunt, neque locus inventus est eorum amplius in coelo. Commemoration of Saint Michael the Archangel, Featured Book: Pope Leo XIII and the Prayer to St. Michael, Origins of this Pope Leo XIII’s Saint Michael Prayer. Therefore, most invincible Leader, be with the people of God against this spiritual wickedness and bring about victory. ... Prayers Before Meals Food Prayer Arithmetic School Lessons Compliments Homeschool Education Math Learning. Amen. Daniel 10:13-21 describes Daniel's vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israelites. 1 John 4:1 ESV Protect me especially at the hour of my death, so that I may be admitted to the joys of paradise where I, with all the Angels, may praise God eternally. Praesertim me in hora mortis meae protege, ut ad paradisi gaudia admittar, ubi cum omnibus Angelis Deum aeternis laudibus depraedicem. Saint Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle, be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. After all, through the power of God, he cast Satan out of heaven when he rebelled against God. It is being requested by many among the laity and even mandated by some bishops . Amen. Saint Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle, be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. Saved by roisin gallaghrr. The prayer was added to the Church’s official exorcism ritual by one of his successors. It is…. Per intercessiónem Sancti Michaélis et cappéllae caeléstis Principatorum,, Dóminus ánimas nostras spíritu oboediéntiae ímpleat. O Glorious Archangel St. Michael, Prince of the heavenly host, be our defense in the terrible…, This prayer of St Augustine can be said either before or after communion.