Mild winters have allowed the adelgid to spread rapidly. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. Fall foliage red to red orange. IMAGE INFORMATION; Striped Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Part/Shade Hgt. While those are the most common trees of Pennsylvania there are dozens of trees you will likely see in a walk in the woods. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. Inflorescence red-purple in very early spring. 4 | Pennsylvania Native Trees and Shrubs Lancaster County Planning Commission Terms Alluvium soil: loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock), or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, there are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. What is a Tree?Growth—Wood—Bark—Growth patterns—Short shoots and long shoots—JuvenilityLeaves—Fall leaf colorRoots—Root partnersFlowers, fruits, and seeds—ConifersAngiospermsPollination—-Seed dispersalClonal growth, Chapter 2. See more ideas about native plants, plants, wild flowers. Welcome to the Pennsylvania A-Z native species list. More non-native plants are introduced every year. Authoritative, encyclopedic, lavishly illustrated guide to the trees of the state and region—from the Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. As early successional species modify the environment by increasing the organic matter and shading the forest floor, more shade tolerant species invade. A campaign led by Dr. Joseph Rothrock, resulted in the formation of a Division of Forestry within the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture in 1895 and the appointment of Dr. Rothrock as the first Forestry Commissioner. Sixty-two distinct tree-dominated natural community types have been described for Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania, the clearing for farming and cutting trees for commercial uses that began with the first European arrivals had, by 1900, reduced the forest cover from 90-95 percent of the land area to 32 percent. American beech 4. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. Black or “Swamp” Ash. Pennsylvania native trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, seeds. Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak and sassafras. Learn More about PNPS. Moist rich acidic soils. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. How to identify trees Identification Keys, GlossaryAppendixTree ListsNative Trees that are Important Food Sources for Moths and ButterfliesSmall to Moderate-size Native Trees with Conspicuous FlowersNative Trees with Edible FruitsEndangered, Threatened, and Rare Trees of PennsylvaniaNative Early Successional Trees (sun-loving)Native Trees of Riparian ForestsNative Wetland TreesTrees that are at or Near the Southern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Northern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Eastern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Trees Listed by Family, Chapter 2. Doc ID: 1737092 Doc Name: sf-PSU TreeID Program.pdf; Error Message: It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. The state distribution maps in the species info boxes below are from the USDA NRCS PLANTS Database at plants.usda.gov.In instances where state specific maps are unavailable, the US distribution map will be used in its place. Audubon Pennsylvania . As the ice receded, species that had found refuge farther south gradually returned. Red maple is a moderately fast-growing Pennsylvania-native shade tree best known for its brilliant red (sometimes red/gold) fall foliage. Gaining in popularity, Pawpaws have the largest fruits of native fruit trees. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. The spotted lanternfly, a brightly colored red and black moth-like insect and one of the latest invaders, landed in Pennsylvania’s Berks County around 2012 and has munched its way across 13 counties, threatening grapes, orchards and hardwood trees. Beech, sugar maple, and hemlock are so-called late successional trees because of their ability to grow and reproduce in low light conditions. Additionally, 1,300 non-native species exist throughout the state. Two trees that once grew here, Atlantic white cedar and swamp cottonwood, are extirpated (gone from the state). Wood not needed for fuel or building material was often burned early in the process of clearing the land; after all, there was a seemingly unlimited supply. northern red oak 1. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. The Tionesta Scenic and Natural Area in Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania includes the only sizable tract of old growth forest that remains in the state. Many others have arrived subsequently through deliberate or accidental introductions from other parts of the world. Trees dominate the landscape and provide habitat structure for a multitude of other plants, animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms, thereby protecting biological diversity. Four other tree species, short-leaf pine and three hawthorns, have been recommended for listing but a specific status has not yet been determined. Don’t worry if you see beetles on the flowers – they are the only pollinators who will visit. Altered ForestsImpact of pests and diseases—Pennsylvania's forests have also been profoundly affected by pests and diseases introduced from different parts of the world. By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. The “white oak group” includes all oaks without bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that ripen in one season. Thanks to all for your continued support of this program. Fagus grandifolia. You probably even see these in your own yard and don’t even know it. Trees came back not only on cutover lands, but also on abandoned farmland; today, second growth forests cover 59 percent of the state's land area. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, and often planted for ornamental purposes in open spaces. Fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in bogs and lake sediments all across the eastern half of North America, as well as many of the earliest written observations, record wide-scale use of fire by Native Americans to manage their landscape. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. During the railroad logging era, technology was present not only to harvest vast areas but also to utilize everything regardless of species or size. In turn, trees that have National champion potential will be forwarded to American Forests. .". PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Learn More about PNPS. This medium-sized tree is favored for its uniform, upright growth. Rail beds were constructed up every hollow, far into forests unreachable when proximity to water was necessary to transport the logs to markets. Combining plants that grow well in the same natural habitats will help create healthy, vigorous plantings. flowering dogwood 5. Home; About; Contact; Our Plants. The railroad logging era, as it is known, allowed loggers to reach the vast interior of the state's forests. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. It can be used as an accent plant or as a backdrop for small flowering trees. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. Elders of the Lenni Lenape tribe have certified the tree has been venerated for 480+ years. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. Some of the same trees that are native to Delaware can also be found in Pennsylvania, as we are close neighbors. Today many of the old railroad beds are the basis for a network of hiking trails. In addition, at least 21 large native shrubs sometimes grow to tree size and form. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? Beginning in the 1760s, white pine logs 120 feet long and 4 feet in diameter (or larger) were cut in the hills of northeastern Pennsylvania, fastened together in huge rafts, and floated down the Delaware River to Philadelphia to provide masts for British ships. Trees are primarily identified by three things: their leaves, seeds, and bark. Cat/R/M/S. Charcoal making was another forest industry that thrived before the discovery of coal as a fuel. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. white oak 2. The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. Pennsylvania's location spanning 40 degrees - 42 degrees north latitude and its varied terrain support 108 species of native trees and many other introduced from Europe and Asia. We have over 1000 trees listed across the state that are big locally, or are the biggest in the state. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. : 15-20' Color: Yellow Bloom: April-May Plant Community: A Young trees-distinctive striped bark: Sugar Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Full/Part Hgt. Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. Pennsylvania Trees Objective for this presentation: ... Eastern Native Americans made a flour from them. Riparian areas throughout the state, where periodic flooding is a limiting factor, are characterized by sycamore, silver maple, box-elder, American elm, red elm, black willow, green ash, black ash, black walnut, and red maple. To learn more about the native plants we currently offer, select the appropriate native plant type. Mar 16, 2018 - Explore Diana Silvestri's board "Native Plants Pennsylvania", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. Forest SuccessionWith few exceptions, rainfall, temperature, and soil conditions are suitable for the growth of trees throughout Pennsylvania. A grass substitute for dry, shady areas under trees. ISA Certified Arborist® Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. Old photographs record the boom days at Masten, Golinza, Laquin, and many other sites that today are only names on a map, a few old foundations, or perhaps the site of a hunting camp. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … Quercus alba. Understory trees include flowering dogwood, pawpaw, umbrella magnolia, redbud, and witch-hazel. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles Lancaster County’s Pennsylvania Native Tree and Shrub guide has been developed to increase the understanding and awareness of residents and officials of the environmental importance of native plant conservation and utilization. Early lumbering—Tall, straight, and suitable for masts for ships, the eastern white pine was the first large-scale target of waves of loggers who assaulted Pennsylvania's forests. River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. Oak and other hardwoods are also important. Early accounts of the landscape of the interior of Pennsylvania contain frequent references like this descriptive passage by Fortescue Cumming while crossing Tuscarora Mountain in 1807, "view to the westward, though extensive, was cheerless and gloomy, over a broken and mountainous or rather hilly country, covered with forests, chiefly of the dark and sombre pine . Fourteen other smaller fragments are preserved in state forests or state parks. Wood products including barrel staves, lath, shingles, boxes, and kindling wood were produced in hastily built factories located in temporary towns that sprang up throughout the northern tier of Pennsylvania. The cooling effect from transpiration and shading add to our comfort. What wasn't usable as lumber was treated by slow heating and distillation in "chemical factories" that produced acetate of lime, wood alcohol, wood tar, charcoal, and gases. They protect the soil and facilitate ground water recharge by reducing runoff and erosion. The "Great Clearcut"—The invention of the geared logging locomotive set the stage for the great clearcut of Pennsylvania's forests that took place between 1890 and 1930. The oak-dominated forests that persist today, and native grasslands, most of which disappeared soon after Native Americans were ousted from the land, almost certainly owe their existence to traditions of large-scale burning among some groups of people for centuries or thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. In addition to 2.1 million acres of state forests, Pennsylvania's publicly owned forest lands include another 277,000 acres in 116 state parks. 6 Common Serviceberry—Amelanchier arborea— BF, PC,SY, LG, S Also know as Shadbush, this deciduous small tree grows from 15-25 ft. and is often found on rocky bluffs and upper slopes. The most recent invader, hemlock woolly adelgid, is killing our state tree the Canadian hemlock in southern and eastern parts of the state. Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. Pennsylvania is host to one national forest; the Allegheny National Forest contains just over half a million acres. In areas near early iron furnaces, colliers cut trees (preferably oak or chestnut) and stacked them in conical piles built in the woods. Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. Trees provide a renewable source of lumber, paper, nuts and chemicals. Black walnut is one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring and one of the first to lose its leaves in the fall. Pennsylvania Sedge (Carex pensylvanica) - PART TO FULL SHADE. The Pennsylvania Native Plant Society advocates conservation of native plants and their habitats and promotes the increased use of native plants in the landscape. Rare SpeciesThe abundance of individual tree species varies greatly from those that are found throughout the state in a variety of habitats such as red maple, beech, and red oak, to those that are very limited in their occurrence. Pennsylvania is home to a wide variety of trees, some living no where in the world, not to mention some of the oldest and longest living in the world. Here are some of the most common trees of Pennsylvania. Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery, LLC 2415 Route 100, Orefield, PA 18069 Tel: 610/395-2570 Fax: 610/395-3546 E-mail: info@edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Web: www.edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Container trees, shrubs, perennials, grasses, ferns, and aquatic plants. A colonial shrub species, grows from 3’ to 15’ tall, prefers full sun, low drought tolerance, blooms from April to July, white flowers, produces pear shaped red fruit that per- sists into winter. Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. Some particularly attractive varieties are the: Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) with its bright pink burst of color in spring; Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is showy in the fall with brilliant red leaves. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Heart's Content, also in the Allegheny National Forest, has 100 acres of old growth hemlock-white pine forest. The 6- to 9-inch-long leaves are a glossy green on top and pale green underneath. Most of Pennsylvania’s forest lands fall into two types: Mixed oak forests cover about 54 percent of the commonwealth -- mostly in the south -- and include trees such as northern red oak, chestnut oak, shagbark hickory, red maple, and tulip poplar. Pennsylvania's State Tree is quite versatile in the ways it can be used in the landscape. You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. Abandoned farmland, and cleared or timbered land will become forested again through a natural process known as secondary succession. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. However, short-term fencing does not allow forest shrubs or wildflowers, which never outgrow the reach of deer, to escape devastation. 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